July 7, 1847|
June 30, 1902 (aged 54)|
Waikīkī, Honolulu, Oahu
July 2, 1902|
William Hoapili Kaʻauwai (unmarried)
Samuela Kekuiapoiwa |
William Hoapili Kaʻauwai
Lot Kapuāiwa Kamehameha
Olga Keahikuni Kekauʻōnohi
Keanolani (July 7, 1847 – June 30, 1902) was a Hawaiian chiefess (aliʻi) of the Kingdom of Hawaii. She was the illegitimate daughter of Abigail Maheha and King Kamehameha V, who reigned from 1863 to 1872, and was born during a liaison between the two when they were students at the Chiefs' Children's School (later renamed the Royal School), a boarding school run by American missionaries for students of Hawaiian royal descent. Keanolani was raised by her father's half-sister Keʻelikōlani. Her illegitimate birth and unacknowledged parentage prevented her from succeeding to the Hawaiian throne when her father died without naming an heir, thus ending the reign of the House of Kamehameha. In 1873, she became a mistress of her uncle by marriage William Hoapili Kaʻauwai. In 1874, she became a supporter of the newly elected House of Kalākaua. She married and left descendants. Her name is also often spelled as Keano or Keanu. In one source, she is named as Keauoʻokalau.
Keanolani was born July 7, 1847, on the island of Kauaʻi. Her birth occurred five months after her mother, thirteen-year-old Abigail Maheha, had an arranged marriage to a commoner named Keaupuni, an expelled student from Lahainaluna Seminary and servant of her hānai (informally adopted) mother, Governess Kekauʻōnohi of Kauaʻi. Through Maheha, Keanolani was the granddaughter of High Chief Namaile and High Chiefess Kuini Liliha, who was the Royal Governor of Oʻahu from 1829 to 1831 and a political adversary of Queen Kaʻahumanu, the Kuhina Nui (premier) during the reigns of Kamehameha II and Kamehameha III. Maheha was a former student at the Chiefs' Children's School, later renamed the Royal School, a boarding school run by American missionaries Amos Starr Cooke and his wife Juliette Montague Cooke for students of Hawaiian royal descent. She was declared eligible for the throne of the Kingdom of Hawaii by King Kamehameha III. However, the thirteen-year-old Maheha had left the school at the insistence of her teachers, and was married off to Keaupuni to cover an unexpected pregnancy. Keaupuni was not the biological father of the baby, as was later attested by Mele, a witness in the 1855 divorce suit between him and Maheha.
Her father was not officially identified. However, during and after her lifetime, speculation has focused on two princes of the Kamehameha dynasty: the seventeen-year-old Moses Kekūāiwa, who was the eldest boy at the Royal School, or his sixteen-year-old brother Lot Kapuāiwa, who later became King Kamehameha V. Evidence points toward Lot because Moses was expelled from the school two days before Maheha. He had also financially supported Maheha's husband Keaupuni. The entries from the period after September 1, 1845, were also torn out of Lot's school journal. She was raised by Princess Ruth Keʻelikōlani, her namesake and the half-sister of Kamehameha V. Kamehameha V reigned from 1863 to his death on December 11, 1872, without acknowledging his daughter or naming an heir to the throne, and was succeeded by his cousin Lunalilo. Keanolani would not have been eligible to succeed Kamehameha V since the Hawaiian constitution only permitted succession through legitimate lines. Similarly, Albert Kūnuiākea, the illegitimate son of Kamehameha III, had not been considered for the throne in 1854.
While still married to her first husband Lihilihi, Keanolani became the mistress of William Hoapili Kaʻauwai, an Anglican chaplain and a high chief of Mauian descent who had divorced her half-aunt Kiliwehi in 1872. During this period, Hoapili and Keanolani were partisans of King Kalākaua, who had been elected as monarch in 1874 after the death of King Lunalilo. Hoapili was promised the position of Royal Chamberlain in the new ruling household. Queen Emma, the widow of Kamehameha IV and former patron of Hoapili and Kiliwehi, noted the illicit affair in her letters in 1873. Commenting on September 20, Emma wrote, "Hoapili and Keano are at David’s [Kalākaua's] Hamohamo. It is said she is with child by him again." Later, on September 26, she noted, "Keano was here last evening and appeared to be looking thick round the waist. She reports Kiliwehi recovering under Dr. Hutchison’s treatment...." Keanolani had an illegitimate son which she named William Hoapili Kaʻauwai II, born on January 31, 1874. The elder Hoapili died on March 30, 1874.
Keanolani became a friend of Queen Kapiʻolani, the wife of King Kalākaua. Few details exist on her life after this point until her death. In later life, she lived on the premises of Pualeilani, the Waikīkī residence of the queen. She continued living at Pualeilani when her nephews Princes David Kawānanakoa and Jonah Kūhiō Kalanianaʻole inherited the property. At this point, the Hawaiian monarchy had been overthrown in 1893 and the islands subsequently annexed by the United States in 1898. Despite this, her rank was acknowledged during the birthday reception of the former Queen Liliʻuokalani in 1901. The press initially described her as "old and mentally infirm" but also commented favorably on her noble bearing and knowledge of court etiquette. It was reported that she "swept majestically along amongst the throng as if she were a reigning queen" and "greeted the Queen as one high chieftess [sic] to another."
Keanolani died on June 30, 1902, while bathing at the beaches of Waikīkī near Pualeilani. She died on the beach after a swim in the ocean. The cause of death was reported as apoplexy in her obituaries due to the discoloration of her face, and the coroner ruled that it was due to "fatty degeneration of the heart." She died intestate and her daughter Kahaina petitioned to be appointed administratrix of the estate, which was valued at $2000. After the autopsy, her remains laid in state at the bungalow of Pualeilani on July 1. The funeral service on the next day was conducted by Reverend Henry Hodges Parker, the pastor of Kawaiahaʻo Church. Her pallbearers included her son Hoapili Kaʻauwai II and her maternal uncle Palekaluhi. Her body was laid to rest at the Kawaiahaʻo Cemetery.
Marriage and descendants
She later divorced Lihilihi at the command of her aunt Keʻelikōlani. From her next marriage to Kamali, she had three children including Lot Kapuāiwa Kamehameha (1883/1884–1917), who died age 33, Keōpūolani, and Olga Keahikuni Kekauʻōnohi (1888/1889–1907), who died aged 18. Her obituary in 1902 reported, "Several years ago her husband [Kamali] went away into the mountains and nothing more was heard of him."
Another daughter mentioned in the sources was Kahaina, who petitioned to be appointed administratrix of her mother's estate after her death.
- Muir 1952, p. 10.
- Kaomea 2014, p. 140.
- McKinzie 1983, pp. 41–42.
- Kam 2017, pp. 70–72.
- Cooke & Cooke 1937, pp. 279–280.
- "Princes and Chiefs eligible to be Rulers". The Polynesian. 1 (9). Honolulu. July 20, 1844. p. 1. Archived from the original on December 22, 2015. Retrieved July 16, 2018.
- Van Dyke 2008, p. 364.
- Kaomea 2014, p. 125.
- Kam 2017, pp. 70-72.
- Kaomea 2014, pp. 139–144.
- Walker, Ahlo & Johnson 2000, p. 78.
- Keawe, J. H. (July 31, 1903). "He Kamehameha Oiaio Oia". Ka Nupepa Kuokoa. XLI (31). Honolulu. p. 1. Archived from the original on July 16, 2018. Retrieved July 15, 2018.
- "Keanu Dies On The Sea Shore". The Pacific Commercial Advertiser. Honolulu. July 1, 1902. p. 2. Archived from the original on July 16, 2018. Retrieved July 16, 2018.; "Keanu Dies On The Sea Shore". The Hawaiian Gazette. Honolulu. July 1, 1902. p. 4. Archived from the original on July 16, 2018. Retrieved July 16, 2018.; "Death Of A Chiefess – Reputed Daughter Of Kamehameha Dead". The Hawaiian Star. Honolulu. June 30, 1902. p. 1. Archived from the original on July 16, 2018. Retrieved July 16, 2018.; "Death Of A Chiefess – Apoplexy the Cause While Bathing in the Sea at Waikiki". The Independent. Honolulu. July 2, 1902. p. 5. Archived from the original on July 23, 2018. Retrieved July 23, 2018.
- "Hala ia Pua Alii o Ka Aina – Make O Keanu Ma Kapakai O Waikiki". Ka Nupepa Kuokoa. XL (27). Honolulu. July 4, 1902. p. 1. Archived from the original on July 16, 2018. Retrieved July 16, 2018.
- Kanahele 1999, pp. 263–267.
- Van Dyke 2008, p. 93.
- Haley 2014, pp. 103-104, 172.
- Muir 1952, pp. 5–13.
- Kaeo & Queen Emma 1976, pp. 112–114.
- McKinzie 1983, pp. 43, 49; "Mookuauhau Alii – Na Iwikuamoo o Hawaii Nei Mai Kahiko Mai". Ka Makaainana. VI (6). Honolulu. August 10, 1896. p. 2. Retrieved September 26, 2016.
- "Royal Luaus Given By Liliuokalani". The Pacific Commercial Advertiser. Honolulu. September 3, 1901. pp. 9, 13. Archived from the original on July 16, 2018. Retrieved July 16, 2018.; "Royal Luaus Given By Liliuokalani". The Hawaiian Gazette. Honolulu. September 3, 1901. p. 5.
- "Had Heart Disease". The Pacific Commercial Advertiser. Honolulu. July 2, 1902. p. 5. Archived from the original on July 16, 2018. Retrieved July 16, 2018.; "Had Heart Disease". The Hawaiian Gazette. Honolulu. July 5, 1902. p. 6. Archived from the original on July 16, 2018. Retrieved July 16, 2018.
- "Court Notes". The Pacific Commercial Advertiser. Honolulu. July 19, 1902. p. 12. Archived from the original on July 16, 2018. Retrieved July 16, 2018.; "In the Matter of the Estate of Keanu". Evening Bulletin. Honolulu. July 18, 1902. p. 8. Archived from the original on July 16, 2018. Retrieved July 16, 2018.; "Local And General News". The Independent. Honolulu. July 19, 1902. p. 3. Archived from the original on July 16, 2018. Retrieved July 16, 2018.
- McKinzie 1983, p. 43.
- Hawaiʻi State Archives (2006). "Keano divorce record". Fifth Circuit Court. Indexes. Divorces: 1852 to 1899. p. 3. Retrieved June 5, 2014 – via Ulukau, the Hawaiian Electronic Library.
- "Member Of Royalty Summoned By Death". Honolulu Star-Bulletin. Honolulu. June 14, 1917. p. 5. Archived from the original on July 16, 2018. Retrieved July 16, 2018.; "Died". Honolulu Star-Bulletin. Honolulu. June 14, 1917. p. 7. Archived from the original on July 16, 2018. Retrieved July 16, 2018.
- "Young Chiefess Dies Last Night". The Hawaiian Star. Honolulu. May 8, 1907. p. 8. Archived from the original on July 16, 2018. Retrieved July 16, 2018.; "Young Chiefess Dies After Long Illness". Evening Bulletin. Honolulu. May 8, 1907. p. 2. Archived from the original on July 16, 2018. Retrieved July 16, 2018.; "Local Brevities". The Pacific Commercial Advertiser. Honolulu. May 9, 1907. p. 9. Archived from the original on July 16, 2018. Retrieved July 16, 2018.
- "Local And General News". The Independent. Honolulu. July 19, 1902. p. 3. Archived from the original on July 16, 2018. Retrieved July 16, 2018.
Bibliography<templatestyles src="Template:Refbegin/styles.css" />
- Cooke, Amos Starr; Cooke, Juliette Montague (1937). Richards, Mary Atherton, ed. The Chiefs' Children School: A Record Compiled from the Diary and Letters of Amos Starr Cooke and Juliette Montague Cooke, by Their Granddaughter Mary Atherton Richards. Honolulu: Honolulu Star-Bulletin. OCLC 1972890.
- Haley, James L. (2014). Captive Paradise: A History of Hawaii. New York: St. Martin's Press. ISBN 978-0-312-60065-5.
- Kaeo, Peter; Queen Emma (1976). Korn, Alfons L., ed. News from Molokai, Letters Between Peter Kaeo & Queen Emma, 1873–1876. Honolulu: The University Press of Hawaii. ISBN 978-0-8248-0399-5. OCLC 2225064.
- Kam, Ralph Thomas (2017). Death Rites and Hawaiian Royalty: Funerary Practices in the Kamehameha and Kalakaua Dynasties, 1819–1953. S. I.: McFarland, Incorporated, Publishers. ISBN 978-1-4766-6846-8. OCLC 966566652.
- Kanahele, George S. (1999). Emma: Hawaii's Remarkable Queen. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 978-0-8248-2240-8. OCLC 40890919.
- Kaomea, Julie (2014). Education for Elimination in Nineteenth-Century Hawaiʻi: Settler Colonialism and the Native Hawaiian Chiefs' Children's Boarding School. History of Education Quarterly. 54. New York: History of Education Society. pp. 123–144. doi:10.1111/hoeq.12054. ISSN 0018-2680. OCLC 5571935029.
- McKinzie, Edith Kawelohea (1983). Stagner, Ishmael W., ed. Hawaiian Genealogies: Extracted from Hawaiian Language Newspapers. 1. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 0-939154-28-5. OCLC 12555087.
- Muir, Andrew Forest (1952). "William Hoapili Kaauwai: A Hawaiian in Holy Orders". Sixty-First Annual Report of the Hawaiian Historical Society for the Year 1952. Honolulu: Hawaiian Historical Society. 61: 5–13. hdl:10524/48. OCLC 722778378.
- Van Dyke, Jon M. (2008). Who Owns the Crown Lands of Hawaiʻi?. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 978-0-8248-6560-3. OCLC 257449971 – via Project MUSE. (Subscription required (. ))
- Walker, Jerry; Ahlo, Charles; Johnson, Rubellite Kawena (2000). Kamehameha's Children Today. Honolulu: J. Walker. OCLC 48872973.